Gonorrhea Test (Swab)

Does this test have other names?

GC test, gonorrhea nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), gonorrhea DNA probe test

What is this test?

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by N. gonorrhoeae. This test looks for DNA of gonorrhea bacteria. It is done on a sample taken from the cervix, urethra, penis, or rectum. 

The samples are sent to a special lab where millions of copies of the DNA are made. An advantage of this test is that it can tell gonorrhea bacteria from chlamydia bacteria. Chlamydia is another common sexually transmitted infection. This is important because chlamydia and gonorrhea cause the same symptoms. 

Why do I need this test?

You may have this test if you have certain risk factors that increase the chance of gonorrhea infection. You may also have this test if your healthcare provider thinks that you have gonorrhea. 

Women with gonorrhea often have no symptoms. Those with symptoms may have:

  • Vaginal discharge

  • Burning feeling when urinating

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Pelvic pain

If you are pregnant, you may also be checked for gonorrhea as part of prenatal testing. A pregnant woman can pass gonorrhea to her baby during delivery. This may cause blindness or a blood infection that can cause death. Finding and treating gonorrhea prevents these problems.

Men may have:

  • Fluid leaking from the penis

  • Pain when urinating

  • Painful or swollen testicles

What other tests might I have along with this test?  

If you are female, your healthcare provider may take a sample from your vagina or cervix. If you are male, your healthcare provide may take a sample from your urethra. If you have had anal or oral sexual contact, your provider will do a rectal and/or throat culture. A sample of urine may be checked. You may also have lab tests to check for other STDs.  

What do my test results mean?

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.

Normal results are negative, meaning that the lab found no evidence of gonorrhea.

If you test positive for gonorrhea, you'll be started on treatment to cure the disease. If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause severe reproductive and other health problems. Your sexual partners should be tested and treated as well.   

How is this test done?

Your healthcare provider will use a sterile, cotton-tipped swab to take a sample from the area to be tested. He or she will move it from side-to-side to collect cells. Healthcare providers often swab from more than one area. Instead, you may be given instructions to collect your own samples. Or a urine sample may also be tested.

What might affect my test results?

If you are providing a urine sample, urinating within 1 to 2 hours of testing may affect the results. Taking antibiotics can also affect your test results. If you are female, your test results could be affected by douching or using vaginal creams within 24 hours of testing. 

How do I get ready for this test?

You don't need to prepare for this test. But women shouldn't douche or use vaginal creams within 24 hours of testing. For urine testing, you should not urinate within 1 to 2 hours of testing. In addition, be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.

Online Medical Reviewer: Haldeman-Englert, Chad, MD
Online Medical Reviewer: Holloway, Beth Greenblatt, RN, MEd
Date Last Reviewed: 2/1/2018
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